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Allegations Against Prospective Adopters and in Relation to Children Placed for Adoption or Already Adopted


This procedure applies where allegations are made or suspicions are raised that approved prospective adopters have caused Significant Harm to a child. It also applies where allegations are made by or in relation to a child placed for adoption or a child already adopted and in receipt of adoption support services. It may relate to recent abuse or neglect or historical abuse

The procedure should be read in conjunction with the North and South of Tyne Safeguarding Children Partnership Procedures.


1. Policy
2. Introduction
3. Procedure
  3.1 Initial Action
  3.2 Strategy Meeting
  3.3 Investigation and Action
  3.4 Concluding the Investigation

1. Policy

All children are entitled to the same level and standard of protection from harm including those receiving services from statutory or other agencies. For this reason, enquiries and investigations relating to children in receipt of such services must be dealt with under the principles, policies and procedures of the Multi Agency Safeguarding Partnership. The welfare of the child or young person remains of paramount importance throughout any enquiries; this includes both their safety, their attachment to the prospective adopters and the need for stability in placement.

Under the Adoption and Children Act prospective adopters will have Parental Responsibility automatically once the child is placed with them. This allows the prospective adopters to make a range of day to day decisions about the child and empowers them to take the initiative for the child without having to clear every small matter with the agency. This supports adopters and children to move progressively towards the point where adopters exercise exclusive parental responsibility when an adoption order is made. On placement, however, the agency also retains parental responsibility and can place limits on the extent to which prospective adopters exercise their parental responsibility. The agency must continue to be satisfied about the child’s safety and welfare.  The agency has to balance the desire to empower adopters to take up their new role and the need to be sure that the child’s welfare is being pursued.  The child’s welfare is the most important consideration. It is important that the agency is clear with adopters about limits to their parental responsibility. 

Allegations or suspicions that a prospective adopter has caused Significant Harm or that a child placed for adoption or already adopted and in receipt of adoption support services has suffered Significant Harm to a child will be investigated thoroughly, speedily and sensitively under these procedures and will involve open and honest communication with and support to all those affected.

Prospective adopters will be supported, treated fairly and will receive timely information with regard to any concern, complaint or allegation. If required the Adoption Service will arrange for independent advice and support to be provided to the prospective adopters, either from within its own resources or via commissioning from an external provider.

Historical allegations by children placed for adoption or already adopted and in receipt of adoption support services should be responded to in the same way as contemporary concerns. It will be important to ascertain if the person about whom the allegation is made is currently working with children and if that is the case, to consider whether the current employer should be informed.

Clear timescales will be integral to the procedure and those involved must avoid delay unless there is good reason. The adopter’s file must be updated to contain recording relating to all aspects of the investigation including decisions reached and there will be clarity regarding access to reports and documents relating to the investigation.

Where allegations are made in relation to prospective adopters, the welfare and safety of all children in the prospective adopters' household, and children with whom the prospective adopters may have contact, must also be considered during any Section 47 Enquiry.

In relation to any allegations made, it is important to note that, although there may be insufficient evidence to support a Police prosecution, this does not mean that action cannot be taken to protect a child nor, for example, that the termination of a prospective adopter's approval cannot be considered.

Adoption Panel members have a responsibility to review the approval of any prospective adopters and their suitability to continue adopting following any complaint or allegation when that case is brought to panel. The Adoption Panel will make a recommendation on prospective adopters’ suitability to adopt. 

2. Introduction

The expectation is that:

  1. At the time of a child's placement, prospective adopters will be provided with detailed information as to the child's background and in particular the context of any abusive experiences of and/or previous allegations made by the child - see Placement for Adoption Procedure;
  2. All prospective adopters will receive preparation and guidance to help them provide a safe environment for the child and all members of the adoptive family;
  3. All prospective adopters will have received information about this procedure.

In addition, in relation to the Adoption Service, it is an expectation of the Adoption National Minimum Standards 2011 that:

  • A senior manager within the Adoption Service is identified to be the designated allegations manager who liaises with the LADO in all cases to which this procedure applies and manages the allegations process. In Gateshead this function is performed by the Adoption Team Manager or the Safeguarding and Care Planning Service Manager;
  • All staff within the Adoption Service are aware of the requirements of this procedure;
  • Where children from other agencies are placed with Gateshead Council adopters on the basis of an interagency agreement, the agency for the child will be given a copy of these guidelines when the interagency agreement is made. If the agency does not already have a copy of these guidelines, a copy should be emailed or faxed to them immediately it has been decided to call a strategy meeting. A representative of the agency empowered to take full part in the range of decisions and outcomes should also be invited to attend any strategy meeting.

3. Procedure

3.1 Initial Action

Any person who receives information or suspects that a child has suffered or is suffering Significant Harm in an adoptive placement or during an introduction to an adoptive placement must immediately inform the child's social worker.

On receipt of any such information, the child's social worker must immediately:

N.B. If there are serious and/or multiple referrals about standards of care, it may still be appropriate to refer the matter for a Strategy Meeting for a full investigation.

The prospective adopter's link worker will:

  • Inform the designated allegations manager within the Adoption Service - see Section 2, Introduction; and, in consultation with the designated allegations manager;
  • Inform the social workers for any other child in the placement;
  • Inform any other local authority with an interest in the adoptive placement;
  • Provide support to the prospective adopter.

Where it is appropriate to treat the allegation/suspicion as a child protection concern, the child's social worker will be responsible for initiating the Multi Agency Safeguarding Procedures in relation to the allegation/suspicion, unless the prospective adopter lives in another local authority area, in which case the child's social worker will make a referral to the relevant local authority and that local authority will be responsible for implementing the North and South of Tyne Safeguarding Children Partnership Procedures and inviting the child's social worker and adopters' link worker to the Strategy Meeting.

In either case, a Strategy Meeting will be convened as soon as possible after concerns have been identified and within a maximum of 2 working days of the referral.

Any action to protect the child in question or any other children in need of protection should not be delayed because of the Strategy Meeting.

Prior to the Strategy Meeting, the prospective adopter's link worker should notify the Regulatory Authority of the allegation/suspicion and invite them to be represented at the Strategy Meeting.

NB Where a child who has already been adopted but is still in receipt of adoption support services makes an allegation of abuse, including where the allegation is of historical abuse, this must be referred to the child's social worker/adoption support worker, who will take the action set out below or, as appropriate, make a referral to Children's Social Care Services for the area where the child lives in order that the relevant LSCP procedures can be followed.

3.2 Strategy Meeting

The purpose of the meeting will be to plan the investigation of the allegation/suspicion.

The following people will be invited:

  1. The Local Authority Designated Officer and the Designated Senior Manager;
  2. The child's social worker and his or her manager;
  3. The manager of the social work team undertaking the investigation, if different;
  4. The prospective adopter's link worker (who will liaise as necessary with the designated allegations manager within the Adoption Service - see Section 2, Introduction);
  5. The Police Child Abuse Investigation Team;
  6. Any other agency involved with the child or adoptive family;
  7. A representative of the Regulatory Authority;
  8. A minute taker;
  9. The child's Independent Reviewing Officer;

The Strategy Meeting must consider:

  • The current allegation and how it is to be investigated;
  • Whether there should be a concurrent police investigation;
  • Any previous allegations or concerns about the prospective adopters and the outcome of previous investigations;
  • Any previous allegations made by the child in question and the outcome of previous investigations;
  • The suspension of introductions or whether the child should remain in placement whilst the investigation is carried out;
  • The need to call an urgent placement planning review meeting - see Placement for Adoption Procedure - or an urgent review of the adoptive placement - see Adoption Reviews Procedure - and the timing of any such review;.
  • The safety and well being of other children living with, or having contact with the prospective adopters;
  • A referral to the Disclosure and Barring Service for inclusion on the Children's Barred List. This should be considered whenever a carer is suspended from their duties;
  • Support to be offered to the children in the family during the investigation;
  • Who will inform the prospective adopters of this meeting?
  • Who will support the prospective adopters through the investigation process?
  • Contact and information to be given to the parents of the children concerned; how and when this should be done.

Whether or not the Strategy Meeting considers that the allegation or suspicion has any foundation, the matter should be investigated unless there are exceptional circumstances, and the Regulatory Authority must always be kept informed.

The Chair should complete a decision sheet at the end of the meeting summarising the actions to be taken and the date of the next meeting. This should also clearly state who is responsible for what actions, record timescales for completion of any agreed actions and reporting/information sharing systems.

Copies of the decision sheet and the minutes should be held on the child's file and Adoption Case Record and the prospective adopter's Adoption Case Record.

3.3 Investigation and Action

The actions agreed at the Strategy Meeting should be implemented by those responsible within the agreed timescales.

If the person raising suspicions or making the allegation wishes to remain anonymous, these wishes should be respected.

Unless there are circumstances when the details or nature of the allegation cannot be shared immediately, the prospective adopters should be advised of the allegation as agreed at the Strategy Meeting and of the process to be followed in the investigation, including the possibility that an Initial Child Protection Conference may be convened in relation to their own children, subject to the outcome of the investigation.

Depending on the level and nature of any concerns and whether they are immediate, the prospective adopters may be given the opportunity to respond to the allegations before any final decision is made about necessary action to protect the child and other children in the household. Such protective action may include asking the person against whom the allegation has been made to leave the household while the investigation is conducted.

Any decision to suspend the approval of the prospective adopter while the investigation is being conducted should be communicated in writing to the prospective adopter by the Adoptive Service Manager.

Those supporting the prospective adopters must contact the prospective adopters as soon as practicable after they are made aware of the allegation, and explain their role. They must make clear their responsibility to report to the local authority, the Police and in some circumstances to the Court if any information relevant to the investigation comes to their attention. Prospective adopters should already be aware from the Gateshead Adopter’s Handbook that they have access to the services of an independent support worker when dealing with a complaint or allegation, but they may need to be reminded that this support is available. Prospective adopters should be given written details of independent support that they can access if preferred, e.g. copy of leaflets with contact details for independent agencies with whom the Adoption Service has a Service Level Agreement for independent support. Contact should also be maintained by the prospective adopters’ social worker.

They must provide to the prospective adopters:

  1. A copy of this procedure and the North and South of Tyne Safeguarding Children Partnership Procedure;
  2. Advice about consulting a solicitor and obtaining independent support;
  3. Advice about insurance arrangements for legal expenses.

Where the prospective adopters are in receipt of financial support, they should be informed of any implications for the payment of such support, where placements have been suspended.

If an Initial Child Protection Conference is convened, the Conference Chair must be consulted in advance to discuss whether the prospective adopters should be invited to attend. In any event, the prospective adopters' views must be obtained for and communicated to the Conference.

3.4 Concluding the Investigation

The Strategy Meeting will usually be reconvened once an investigation has been completed, particularly where no child protection conference is then held. The same people will be invited and the same person will chair the meeting.

The purpose of the reconvened Strategy Meeting is to agree on the outcome of the investigation and responsibilities for any further action, including the need to call an urgent review of the adoptive placement - see Adoption Reviews Procedure and reporting on the matter to the Adoption Panel - and the need to make a referral to the Disclosure and Barring Service for inclusion of the person on the Children's Barred List.

The meeting should determine who will write to the prospective adopters, informing them of the outcome of the investigation.

The child, the parents, other relevant agencies and the Regulatory Authority (if not in attendance) will also be informed of the decisions made at the meeting. The Chair and the child's social worker will agree the most appropriate way of informing the child and parents, and also who will notify the other agencies and the Regulatory Authority.

A report should be presented to the next available Adoption Panel. In situations where prospective adopters have already formally withdrawn from the adoption process, full information should still be presented to the Panel and Agency Decision Maker to enable them to reach an informed view and be in a position to record any recommendations and decisions. As well as the investigation, the report should address the ability of the approved adopters to help come to terms with past events and to handle future behaviour, and whether the proposed placement or placement continues to be suitable. If appropriate, the adoption support plan should be re-examined to see whether there is potential to enhance the placement for the child by additional advice, therapy or other provision of services to any party which qualifies for such help.

The procedure to be followed will be the same as for reviews of prospective adopter's approval - see Assessment and Approvals of Prospective Adopters Procedure.

The social worker preparing the report should consult with the Panel Adviser to the Adoption Panel and the Chair of the Adoption Panel who will advise on who should attend the Panel meeting (usually the child's social worker and the prospective adopter's link worker) and whether or not a special Panel meeting should be convened.

Any allegation made against a prospective adopter or a member of the household and how it was dealt with and decisions made should be recorded on the prospective adopters' file and retained for 100 years after the adoption order is made or if no adoption order is made in accordance with local policy: adoption support agencies should have written procedures for dealing with allegations of historical abuse which may be made by service users during the course of service provision.

All relevant documents in relation to the investigation, whatever the outcome, must be retained on the child's file and the prospective adopter's file, and their respective Adoption Case Records.

Consideration should be given to holding a debriefing meeting for all involved as to the impact of the allegations and the investigation, whatever the outcome, and any necessary assistance should be made available as necessary.